Hello students, this article is about to Coal and Petroleum class 8 notes Types and Conservation, deferent types of coal and petroleum.
Coal and Petroleum class 8 notes :
Coal may be a advanced mixture of carbon, atomic number 1 and O compounds. ME nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus compounds also are gift in it. it’s found in coal mines deep underneath the surface of earth. Story of formation : it’s believed that ample years ago, the bottom below the forests was split open by natural forces similar to earthquakes and volcanoes. The forests got buried under the surface of earth. Thus, the plants had no contact with oxygen. serial layers of sediments sealed the buried plants. Over millions of year, these deposits were subjected to tremendous pressure and warmth finally reworked them into coal.
Carbonisation : The chemical action concerned within the transformation of punt matter into coal is named the carbonization of plant matter. The carbon content of coal depends upon the variability of the coal. the upper the temperature and pressure of the world and therefore the longer the coal has been quick underneath the Earth, the a lot of is that the carbon content in it.
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Types of coal are as follows
(1) Peat (2) Lignite (3) Bituminous coal (4) Anthracite coal
1)Peat Coal : It is the youngest sort of coal that is brown in colour. It contains minimum carbon content and produces less heat and more smoke on burning. Its hot price is ten to fifteen kJ/g.
2)Lignite Coal : It is understood as soft coal. it’s additionally brown in color and contains a lot of carbon than humate. Its calorific value is 15 to twenty kJ/g.
3)Bituminous coal : It is that the common family coal. it’s the foremost swarming f and Is compact, black, contains more carbon and produces more heat than peat and lignite. Its calorific value is thirty to thirty five kJ/g.
4)Anthracite coal : It is the hardest coal containing most carbon. T+ burns with problem because of presence of terribly low volatile matter. so it is not used for household purposes, it is mainly used for industrial purposes. Its hot price is twenty eight to thirty kJ/g.
It is dark brownish to green coloured viscous liquid fossil fuel. It has strong foul smell due to the presence of sulphur containing compounds in it. It is commonly called as crude oil. The economy of a nation depends to a great extent on petroleum wealth, thats why petroleum is called the black gold.
Its name is derived from Latin words Petra (meaning rock) and O1eum (meaning oil). Thus, petroleum literally means “rock oil”.
1)Origin of petroleum : Petroleum is a complex mixture of solid, liquid and seous hydrocarbons, mixed with salt water and earthy particles. It is always found trapped between two impervious rocks.
It is believed that oil is created by the anaerobic decomposition of very tiny ocean animals and plants that got buried within the sea bed many years ago.
2)Occurrence of petroleum : Petroleum happens at a moderate depth (500 m to two hundred m) between the two layers of colorfast rocks. The petroleum is lighter than It water & hence, floats over it. fossil fuel is found higher than petroleum, treed between the rock cap & petroleum layer.
3)Drilling of oil wells: The hole is trained in the Earths crust & once it reached the rock cap, the natural gas comes out 1st with an excellent pressure. once the pressure of gas subsides, oil starts flowing out because of the pressure of natural gas.
4)Refining of petroleum : Petroleum could be a mixture of many hydrocarbons. It additionally contains water, salt and rocky materials. It can’t be utilized in this created kind either as a fuel or a basic material to provide other helpful parts. Before being place to use, it’s to be sublimate or refined. the method of separating the assorted components of petroleum from each other is understood because the purification of petroleum. this can be done by a process known as fractional process that relies on the fact that the various parts of oil have clearly different boiling points.
In incomplete distillation, crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of ,4U0°C or slightly higher than in a very furnace.
Uses of petroleum
(1) oil merchandise are used as fuels.
(2) Lubricating oils, and petroleum jelly are used as lubricants.
(3) Paraffin wax, products of petroleum, is employed for producing candles, polishes, waxed paper, water proofing, etc.
(4) a number of the by-products of petroleum when purification are utilized in the preparation of medicines, ointments, face creams and cosmetics.