Class 8- Science Chapter -7, Conservation of Plants and Animals
Class 8- Science Chapter -7, Conservation of Plants and Animals This is concept eight classes. And today we’ll study chapter seven of class eight signs, conservation of plants and animals.
Conservation of plants and animals :
So in this chapter, we’ll be covering the following topics, deforestation and its causes. What are the consequences or the effects of deforestation? How do we conserve the forest and wildlife and in that topic, we’ll also study about the biosphere reserve, wildlife sanctuary and National Park, about flora and fauna will study about the endemic species red data book, the migration, and how can we help in conserving the forest by recycling paper, and as well as reforestation.
So the first topic of this chapter is deforestation and its causes a large variety of plants and animals live on earth. And a major threat for the survival of these living organisms is deforestation. What do you mean by deforestation? deforestation means clearing of forests or cutting of trees in the forest and using that land for other purposes like agriculture, building roads, houses, etc.
So this is an image of a land which has undergone deforestation.
Deforestation caused by human activities as well as natural causes humans, they cut trees to provide lands for cultivation, agriculture, they cut trees for building houses of factories, and for making furniture as well. And wood is also required for making furniture as well as paper and it’s also used as a fuel. Now, what are the natural causes of deforestation, they are forest fires, floods, and even severe droughts. So these are what is deforestation and the causes of deforestation.
Now let’s see the consequences of deforestation. Deforestation increases the temperature, which results in global warming, it also increases a pollution level of the earth. Deforestation results in the decrease of rainfall. As a result, the groundwater also gets lowered, causing droughts, the water holding capacity, the soil is also decreased, causing floods. Deforestation also causes soil erosion and also decreases the fertility of the soil which results in desertification and deforestation disturbs the balance of nature. So let’s see each of these consequences briefly.
So, the first consequence of deforestation is that it increases the temperature resulting in global warming. Plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, when lot of trees are cut down during deforestation, there will be less number of trees. So fewer trees means less carbon dioxide will be used, resulting in the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. And this increase in carbon dioxide leads to global warming, that is a carbon dioxide, which is present in the atmosphere, it traps the sun rays reflected by the earth thereby increasing the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. And due to global warming, the polar icecaps, they all melt leading to floods. And due to the increase in temperature, there will be less rainfall, which leads to droughts as well.
The second consequences it increases the pollution level of deforestation increases the pollution level of the earth. When fuels are burned, they release a lot of gases like carbon dioxide, plants and trees, they utilize this carbon dioxide and helps in reducing pollution. But if we cut trees, it will increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, thereby increasing the pollution level of the earth.
So the next consequences the deforestation dresses and the decrease of rainfall, the roots of the trees they absorb water from the earth, and this water goes back in the air through the process of evaporation. And this water vapor, they turn into clouds minute cools and condenses back in the earth in the form of rain. So the trees are cut, less water vapor will be evaporated, resulting in the decrease of rainfall.
The fourth consequences, the groundwater also gets lowered resulting in droughts,there will be less rainfall due to deforestation, hence, less water would percolate in the ground. and due to this, the groundwater gets lower and because of the shortage of groundwater and surface water, natural calamity.
These light droughts are also cost.
The next consequences the water holding capacity of the soil is also decreased, causing floods. Deforestation leads to the decrease in the water holding capacity of the sun. during heavy rains, usually the root of the trees, they help in observing the water on the side. But when trees are cut, the percolation of rainwater into the soil is reduced and a lot of rain water, it moves from the surface of the soil to the nearby rivers causing floods. And sometimes rivers will not be able to carry all this rain water. So the excess water overflows from the riverbanks and causes heavy flood damages to the areas nearby, destroying the crops, houses, etc.
So the next consequence is the deforestation causes soil erosion and it also decreases the fertility of soil resulting in desertification. Deforestation changes the properties of the soil, fewer trees result in more soil erosion, what do you mean by soil erosion, soil erosion is a gradual movement of the upper left or the top layer of the soil.It is a process of soil degradation and removal of the top layer of the soil, which is most fertile exposes the lower heart and rocky less, this soil has less use, and it’s less fertile plants, they cannot grow in this type of soil. So gradually, the fertile land they gets converted into desert. And this process is called as desertification. The certification is a process of conversion of fertile land into deserts.
Deforestation disturbs the balance of nature. Deforestation results in the extinction of many plants and animals as forest or the natural habitats of these living organisms. So when these foresters are cleared, these natural habitats gets destroyed, and in the absence of the habitats, they would not get enough food, and they eventually become extinct.
So before we enter the next topic, let’s study about a few terms such as ecosystem ecosystem is a community of living and non living organisms interacting with each other in a specific physical environment. In simple words, we can define a ecosystem as a complete unit consisting of two main components, a biotic components, that is a nonliving components, such as climate, temperature, humidity, soil, water, etc. and biotic compounds that are set of living organisms, such as animals, plants, or microorganisms that are in constant interaction with each other. So we can define a ecosystem as a community of living, and nonliving things that interact with each other example, aquatic ecosystem, it is a body of water, it is a community of living organisms that are dependent on each other in a body of water,the desert ecosystem,forest ecosystem.
So next to this biodiversity. Before that, let’s see what is the biosphere, the biosphere is a part of the earth.
It’s also called as a ecosphere. And it’s the sum of all the ecosystems that is it is a part of the earth in which the living organisms exist, or which supports life. Now, biodiversity it refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, that interrelationships and the relationships with the environment. That is, biodiversity is variety and variability of life on Earth. It’s the amount of diversity between different plants and animals and other species in a given habitat at a particular time. For example, the different varieties of animals and plants that live in an ocean is an example of ocean biodiversity.
So we saw what is deforestation and what are the consequences of deforestation. So now we know how forest is important, so we have to conserve that. So in order to protect the flora and fauna and the habitats, the government have established certain protected areas called wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and Biosphere Reserves, and the government have laid down rules, methods and policies to protect the wildlife and conserve them. plantation cultivation, gracing cutting of trees hunting and poaching.are prohibited in these areas. So, in the previous slide I mentioned about flora and fauna.
So, what do you mean by flora and fauna, the plants and animals found in a particular area are termed as flora and fauna of that area respectively, that is, the plants found in a particular area termed as flora and the animals found in a particular area are termed as fauna of that area.
Let’s see an example.
This is a pachmarhi biosphere this and the plants found in pachmarhi, Biosphere Reserve odd, Sal, de mango, German Silver Ferns, Arjun, etc. And the foreigner, our global barking deer, Cheetah, leopard, wild dog, leopards, etc. So in order to protect the flora and fauna of a particular area, the government have established certain protected areas such as Biosphere Reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, and national parks. So let’s discuss each of these protected areas in detail.
So the first one is Biosphere Reserve. The Biosphere Reserves are the area’s meant for the conservation of biodiversity. What do you mean by biodiversity is a variety of plants and animals living in a given habitat. So we can define Biosphere Reserves as the large areas of protected land for the conservation of wildlife, plant and animal resources and the traditional life of the tribals living that area. So this is an example of a Biosphere Reserve. This is a Pecha merhi Biosphere Reserve. And the biosphere reserve may also contain other protected areas in it.
So this patrimony biosphere reserve it consists of one National Park named as sepura and two wildlife sanctuaries, named Bori and pachmarhi. So a Biosphere Reserve is a protected area meant for the conservation of biodiversity and it contains other protected areas aspect.So now let’s see what is a wildlife sanctuary. wildlife sanctuaries like reserve forest provide protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals. That is wildlife sanctuaries are the areas where wildlife is protected, and the people living in wildlife sanctuaries are allowed to do certain activities such as grazing by their livestock, collecting medicine, plants, firewood, etc.
But hunting and poaching are strictly prohibited in these areas. Some of the threatened wild animals like blackbuck elephant, by the rhinoceros are protected and preserved in our wildlife centuries. An example of wildlife sanctuary is a Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary which is situated in Karnataka and Gere National Park and wildlife sanctuary which is situated in Gujarat.
So now let’s see what is national parks. National Parks are the areas reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources. That is the national parks that not only protect the wildlife, but also the whole set of ecosystems. There is a Flora fauna, landscape and even historic objects in that area that is in wildlife sanctuary, they protect only wildlife, whereas in national parks, they protect wildlife along with the ecosystem.
Example of a national parks the satpura National Park, it is a first resort forest of India. The finest Indian teak is also found in the forest, and we can also find rock shelters in that National Park. And there are more than 100 national parks in India.human activities such as grazing, poaching, hunting, capturing of animals, collection of firewood medicinal plants are not allowed in national parks.Now let’s see the term species.
What do you mean by species species is a group of population which are capable of interbreeding. This means that the members of a species can reproduce fertile offspring only with a member of their own species and not with the members of other species. For example, a lion is able to breed only with the line it cannot breed with deer and the members of the species they have common characteristics.
species can be classified into endemic species and endangered species. endemic species are those species of plants and animals, which are found exclusively in a particular area. They’re not naturally found anywhere else. And a particular type of animal or plant may be me endemic to a zone or a state or a country that is endemic species that those species of plants and animals which are found only in a particular area. For example,The sun or the wild mango or the endemic Flora of the parchment II Biosphere Reserve, and the bison or the Indian giant squid and flying squirrel or the endemic fauna found on the pochamma e Biosphere Reserve. They’re not found anywhere else.
The water in endangered species, the animals whose numbers are diminishing to a level that they might face extinction are known as endangered animals, that is the animals and plants which exist, but the numbers are decreasing are called as endangered species. And those plants and animals which are not in existence, are called us extinct species. Now one of the example is tigers, tigers are slowly disappearing from a forest. But satpura Tiger Reserve was launched by the government to protect the Tigers of the country and in that Tiger Reserve, we can see an increase in the population of tigers. And we can also find.
wild buffaloes as well as bursting her that the next topic is read data book, what do you mean by red data book, it is a source book, which keeps a record of all the endangered animals and plants. That is it is a book that records the endangered species of a particular area. It is maintained by an organization called us International Union for Conservation of natural resources IUCN. India also maintains a red data book for the plants and animals found in India.
So the next topic of this chapter is migration. The seasonal moment of birds or animals from one place to another is termed as migration. And they migrate to optimize their living conditions by moving to areas which are bomber and have more food. Some animals migrate to breed. So in short, we can say that the birds and animals they migrate from one place to another due to the sudden climatic change, or to find food or for breeding purpose. The birds who cover long distance to reach under land are known as migratory birds. And they fly to faraway areas for laying eggs as a feather in their natural habitat becomes very cold and inhospitable.
Example, Siberian cranes, there are snowy white collar birds that migrate during winter in India, because in Siberia becomes very cold and food would be scarce. Therefore, they migrate to India in search of better living conditions.So we saw how the government have established certain areas like national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to conserve the forest as well as violence.
So how can we help in conserving forest?
One method is by recycling paper, how is it possible, it takes about 17 full grown trees to make one tonne of paper, therefore, we should save paper and paper can be recycled five to seven times for use.
So if you recycle paper, we can save energy and the water needed for manufacturing paper and the amount of harmful chemicals used in paper making will also be reduced. Hence, we should save, reuse the use paper and recycle it thereby saving the forest. So the last topic of this chapter is reforestation. We already saw what is deforestation and the consequences of deforestation. So the answer to deforestation is reforestation.
What do you mean by reforestation?
Therefore station is the restocking of the destroyed forest by planting new trees. That is a process of replanting an area with trees and the planted trees should generally be of the same species which are found in that forest. And we should plant at least as many as trees as we cut. This is an example of a reforest area.
Now, reforestation can also happen naturally, if the deforest area is left undisturbed, it re establishes itself. In short, we can say in natural reforestation, there is no role of human beings.This is how humans do reforestation, they plant trees, and after a few years, we can find that the forest have been pre planted. And this is an example of natural reforestation.
So we have already caused tremendous damage to our forests. So in order to retain our green wealth for future generations, plantation of more trees is the only option.
So that’s all for chapter seven, conservation of plants and animals. Thank you so much. May God bless you all. Take care and bye bye