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How will our country’s educational opportunities be improved? What are the options for disadvantaged and marginalised children to receive a good education? What impact will the potential for education have on their future life chances and society’s development? where do they live? Education policies are focused on resolving these issues.these kinds of difficult questions and discussions Education policies often place a premium on options for bringing about structural change in education.
This Article is about Education Commissions and Educational Policies in Independent India. The Unit discusses education debates in order to better understand the position of states in education, state education policy, and current educational issues.challenges in government policy It’s an effort to comprehend the most important initiatives.undertaken to achieve the objectives of educational equity, equality, and efficiency Examine the roadblocks to achieving these objectives.
List of education commissions in India pdf :
- University Education Commission (1948-49)
- Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
- The Education Commission (1964-66)
- National Knowledge Commission (2009)
On the eve of independence, the educational situation was dire. Despite all that had been accomplished under British rule, we started our independence with a relatively low level of educational attainment in almost all areas. There were 17 of them.There are 5,297 universities and 636 colleges (with a total enrolment of 2,38,000 students), universities and 636 colleges (with a total enrolment of 2,38,000 students).secondary schools with 8,70,000 students (implying that not a single adolescent was present)In the age group 14-17, one out of every twenty was enrolled in school).
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There were 12,843 middle schools with two million students (only one out of every eleven children in the age group 11-14 was enrolled) and 1,72,661 primary schools with fourteen million students.(This meant that only one child in every three in the age group 6-years-old was a pupil.) 11 was a student). Technical and vocational education were underdeveloped. both at the school and university levels, as well as the supply of highly qualified individuals There was a scarcity of scientific talent.
List of education commissions in India pdf There were significant educational disparities. particularly between regions, between urban and rural areas, and between On the one hand, there are differences between men and women, as well as between advanced and intermediate castes. hand, as well as the timetable on the one hand, castes and tribes. The educational standards were generally unsatisfactory, especially at the school level, with too much focus on English and too little on Mathematics, Science, or Indian culture.
linguistics Just about fourteen percent of the population was literate, and the overall population was just about a quarter of a million. Educational spending was about Rs. 570 million, or less than half a percent of GDP. percent of national income The country was confronted with this difficult situation. When it had its first tryst with fate in 1947, it was forced to reform (Naik, The year was 1947.)
1) University Education Commission (1948-49)
The University Education Commission (1948-49) was the first post-independence commission on education. It focused primarily on higher education, but it also addressed concerns related to school education. The Commission was tasked with Dr. S. Radhakrishan, a great visionary, was named as chairman. This is the new age.
List of education commissions in India pdf The Radhakrishnan Commission on University Education described higher education’s critical functions. The goals of universities should be to develop capable people who can effectively carry out national obligations in a variety of fields. The university is an educational institution. has to produce capable managers and staff in a variety of fields. as well as industries It must provide excellent leadership in a variety of fields. nation’s best interests.
The Commission proposed that the requirement for admission to university courses be the same as the current intermediate test, that is, after 12 years of schooling and intermediate college. it said. . It remarked that “our secondary education remains the weakest link in our educational machinery and needs urgent reforms.”
The Commission stated that the aim of school education is to provide good general education, and it went on to define the elements of good education as “not only preparing students for university work, but also preparing them for life.” If he did not go to university, he would have to work to support himself.
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According to the Commission, the roles of a school and a university should be distinct. The aim of a school should be to provide appropriate education to those who intend to pursue higher education as well as those who do not. of going any further. The education of both groups could be merged, whereas Some schools may be able to prepare students for careers in agriculture and commerce.
The University Education Commission emphasised the importance of integrating general education into the school curriculum. The Commission was adamant that the school’s results be diverse enough that a large number of people could easily participate. Just a few people will continue working or self-employed in real life. research outside of the classroom.
2) Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
The National Commissions – the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53), and the Education Commission (1964-66) – revisited the questions about education expressed during the freedom struggle (1964-66). Both commissions produced detailed reports. on the themes that emerged from Mahatama Gandhi’s educational ideology in the twentieth century a shift in the sociopolitical landscape with an emphasis on national developments (NCF, Source: 2005, p.3). Under the terms of the law, a separate education commission was created. In 1952, under the chairmanship of Dr. Lakshamanaswami Mudaliyar, the issues were addressed. linked to education at school According to the Commission Report of 1952, Schools must play a critical role in the development of democratic citizenship, with a focus on “Democracy is founded on confidence in the dignity and value of each and every “individual,” whose inherent worth cannot be diminished by economic, ethnic, or social considerations (SEC, 1952, p.20).”
In 1953, the Secondary Education Commission issued a report with recommendations on nearly every aspect of secondary education. The Commission’s main findings were as follows:
- installation of higher secondary system;
- diversified courses;
- three language formula;
- emphasis on education and vocational guidance;
- improvement in building and equipment.
- improvement in methods of teaching, text books and system of examination;
The strategy of establishing a three-year national secondary education system was adopted by the Commission (after eight years of elementary education).
The proposal to break the intermediate stage into two sections, with one year spent in school and the other at university, proved to be backwards – the eleven-year higher secondary course introduced specialisation too early (after class VIII) and found it difficult to find work (Naik, 1969).
3) The Education Commission (1964-66)
The Kothari Commission (1964-66) was formed under the Chairmanship of Dr. D. S. Kothari to formulate a coherent education policy for India, drawing on Nehru’s Mission and articulating most of his main themes. The Commission was extremely helpful. It was comprehensive in scope, covering almost every aspect of the educational system. Unlike Commissions that focus on a single issue, it does not restrict itself to just one. preceded and followed it.
The following are two of the Report’s standout features :
- its comprehensive approach to educational reconstruction;
- its attempt to project a blueprint of a national system of education for India.
Education was supposed to increase productivity, grow social and national unity, consolidate democracy, modernise the country, and develop social, moral, and spiritual values, according to the Commission. The importance of education in Throughout the article, national growth is discussed in great detail. “Education and National Development” is an apt title.
The Commission established three critical elements that would result in the desired educational outcome :
- internal transformation so as to relate it to the life needs and aspirations of the nation;
- qualitative improvement so that the standards achieved are adequate and become internationally comparable;
- expansion of educational facilities broadly on the basis of manpower needs with emphasis on equalisation of education opportunities.
It proposed that education be restructured into a standardised 10+2+3 pattern. It took a “manpower approach” to the enrolment issue, declaring that the primary goal of higher education was to meet the needs of industry and commerce. Even as it recognised its role in fostering social change, it criticised other industries.
4) National Knowledge Commission (2009)
The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was established to address the educational challenges of the twenty-first century. It wasn’t necessarily an education commission because its job was to formulate a structure for higher education quality, access, and equity. NKC is one of the most significant recent campaigns for improving education. education’s standard.
The Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, established the National Knowledge Commission (NKC) in June 2005, under the chairmanship of Mr. Sam Pitroda, to prepare a blueprint for reforming our knowledge-related institutions. infrastructure that will allow India to meet future challenges NKC is a non-profit organisation dedicated to has made proposals in fields such as the right to education, libraries, and the environment. Language, translation, portals, and information networks are all examples of this.
Some of them The following are some suggestions :
1) The need for a national law affirming the right to education. The law should also establish minimum quality requirements in school education, and it is the government’s duty to ensure that they are met. Different levels must be acknowledged and justified.
2) Beginning in Class I, English as a second language should be taught alongside the child’s first language (either mother tongue or regional language). NKC has also emphasised the need for change. the pedagogy of teaching English as a second language, as well as the use of all available media as an exception to conventional teaching approaches.
3) Changes in the educational system that promote decentralisation, local control in school management, and fund disbursement flexibility.
4) Improving school facilities and revamping school inspection with a greater position for local stakeholders and greater transparency in the system to increase efficiency and generate accountability.
5) Teachers, students, and administration would have easier access to information and communication technology (ICT).
6) The need for curriculum and examination changes that move away from rote learning and toward a critical understanding of concepts, as well as faculty growth.
NKC argued that state governments bear primary responsibility for school education and that states should be consulted when policy is being developed. Both pre-service and in-service teachers are also recommended by NKC. Education programmes should be governed by the same rules and regulations as the rest of the industry. Private-sector preparation needs to be monitored more closely.
List of education commissions in India pdf : Click Here….
List of education commissions in India pdf ?
now the List of education commissions in India pdf is
University Education Commission (1948-49)
Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
The Education Commission (1964-66)
National Knowledge Commission (2009)
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