Hello students. Today in this tutorial we are going to take up a topic transportation from chapter life processes of class 10 science. In this topic we will cover transportation in human beings, blood vascular system, the human heart, blood vessels, blood cells, double circulation, blood pressure, functions of blood vascular system and lymphatic system.
Transportation in Human Beings :
Students First you should know what is transportation, and why this transportation system is important for our body. The body of all organisms is made up of cells. As we all know, multicellular organisms have millions of cells in their blood, and they all lie apart from each other. But these cells, they need offseason water, minerals and other organic food for their survival and maintenance. So, these substances needs to be supplied from one part of the body to the other part of the body.So, can we say that transportation can be defined as a life process in which a substance is synthesized or absorbed in one part of the organism is carried to the other parts of the body.
Now coming to transportation in human beings,in human beings, there are two circulatory systems through which the materials can be transported to all the relevant organs and tissues. These two circulatory systems include blood vascular system and lymphatic system.This is a diagram showing how this transportation in human beings takes place.Coming to blood vascular system,a vascular system is that which has tubes full of fluid to be transported from one place to another.
And the blood vascular system comprises of heart, the organ which pumps and receives blood blood itself, which is a red colored fluid, and the blood vessels which are the tubes through which the blood flows.Blood, which is the red colored part red colored fluid and it flows through the blood vessels. It supplies nutrients and organs oxygen to all the living cells and removes waste products and carbon dioxide from them. This blood also includes two components, plasma which is the liquid part of the blood and the blood cells, which is the solid part of the cell.
Now, blood cells are three types, red blood cells, presence of oxygen carrying hemoglobin pigment in red blood cells, makes them look red,white blood cells which we call the shoulders of our body, they fight against the infections and diseases and platelets again very important part of the blood cells, they help in clotting of blood, if the blood will not clot, definitely there, this will cause a severe loss of blood. Transportation in Human Beings.
Coming to blood vessels, blood vessels, these are the tubes through which blood flows and there are three kinds of blood vessels arteries, veins, and capillaries,arteries and veins.
Now we will discuss about the difference between these two blood vessels arteries has picked elastic muscular wall, whereas veins have thin non elastic arteries carries blood away from the heart to organ, whereas veins carries blood from organs towards heart. arteries carries oxygenated blood, but there is one exception. pulmonary artery is the artery which carries deoxygenated blood veins. Usually they carry deoxygenated blood, but again one exception is their pulmonary vein is the vein which carries oxygenated blood.
flow of blood in arteries is quite fast and jerky. Whereas in veins, the flow of blood is a slow and smooth. Now water capillaries, capillaries are involved in extremely narrow blood vessels which occur at the terminals of arteries and veins. They joined arteries and veins together and hence As a vast network of vessels, students, the most important part of our circulatory system is human heart.
Structure of if we talk about the structure of how it is a hollow, muscular organ, roughly the size of this organ is about the effect clenched our fist, it is about that size. And this organ contracts regularly and continuously pumps blood to various parts of the body.It is also known as double pump because it is divided into two halves by septum, the right part in the left part and each half consists of two communicating chambers, upper ones are known as Oracle’s which are small in size, and the lower ones are known as ventricle which are quite large.Transportation in Human Beings.
Thus, we can see the heart has four chambers, the two chambers, upper chambers are called oracles or Agrium and the two lower chambers are known as ventricles. These chambers are separated from each other through valves by these valves are required just to avoid the mixing of the blood. So the walls of hurt are composed of cardiac muscles pipe.
Now, here’s the structure of the human heart.
Now, can we can see that this part is having blue color and this car part of the heart is red or orange in color, this blue color shows impure blood whereas this one shows the pure black. Now we can see these two veins were not covered from here you can see and this one, this is known as superior vena cava because it collects the impure blood from the upper part of the body.
And this is known as the inferior vena cava which covers collects the impure blood from the lower part of the body. Now, the blood from inferior vena cava and the blood from superior vena cava collects over here, the first chamber of the human heart that is the right atrium.
Now, here the impure blood collects first it collects over here and this chamber right now it is in the relaxing position. Once this chamber gets filled,it starts contracting and the lower chamber that is the right ventricle comes in relaxed position, there is a valve present over here that is known as the tricuspid valve. From this chamber impure blood now comes to this right ventricle part. Okay, now this is in contract position and this is right now in a relaxed position and it is paid once it gets paid. The impure blood from right ventricle needs to be transported to lungs for the purification and this transportation takes place through parliamentary arteries.
Already I told you these are the arteries exceptional in the arteries, which carries deoxygenated blood to lungs. Now lungs purify the blood over there. And from there, the purified blood or we can see the oxygenated blood or pure blood first comes to the left atrium and this blood is brought to the left artery and through palimony veins, pulmonary veins brings the oxygenated blood to left atrium. Now, once this chamber gets filled, again the pure blood moves to the next chamber that is the last chamber of the human heart that is left ventricle. Again one valve is present over here that is known as bicuspid valve.
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Now, this chamber is filled with the pure blood and from here the pure blood is taken to all parts of the body through our so this is all how the human heart works.Double circulation. In humans the blood circulation is known as double circulation. Why this is double circulation because the blood passes twice through the heart in one complete cycle of the body.
It involves parliamentary circulation and systemic circulation. pulmonary circulation is the circulation in which the blood moves from heart to the lungs and again back to the heart. Whereas in systemic circulation, blood moves from the heart to the rest of the body and again back to thedouble circulation is made possible because the human heart is divided into two halves. One half pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the other half pumps oxygenated blood to the body.
Students This is the schematic diagram which shows the functioning of blood or it also shows how the blood flows throughout the chambers throughout the body.
As we can see, and already it is explained impure blood, these blue lines show impure blood whereas the red lines show the pure blood. This impure blood or deoxygenated blood from the body is taken to the right atrium, okay, this is taken to the right atrium, now right atrium once it gets paid, the blood goes to the next chamber right ventricle, through this tricuspid valve a valve which is present over here between these two chambers.
Now from right ventricle, the blood impure blood deoxygenated blood goes to lungs for purification and this is taken to the lungs through pulmonary artery.
Now lung does it job purify the blood and now pure blood is taken to the left atrium through pulmonary veins from left atrium pure blood or oxygenated blood moves through left ventricle through bicuspid valve and now the left ventricle is full of oxygenated blood from this chamber the oxygenated blood is taken to all part of the body. Now, this part as I said, this part is known as pulmonary circulation and the lower part is known as the systemic circulation okay.
Coming to next section,
The blood which is present in blood vessels, it exerts force against the walls of vessels and this force exerted by the blood in the walls of vessels is known as blood pressure. There is an especial instrument which measures blood vessels and that instrument is known as sphygmomanometer.The pressure of the blood inside the artery is quite more in comparison to that of veins.
So, the pressure of pressure of blood inside the artery during ventricular system that is contraction is known as systolic pressure and the pressure in artery during ventricular diastole that is relaxation is known as diastolic pressure.
The normal systolic pressure is 120 mm of mercury that is hg and the normal diastolic pressure is 80 mm of hg So, this was all about how the blood flows coming to the functions of blood blood vascular system. circulation of blood is responsible for transportation of syllable digested through food from small intestine to various parts of the body.
That also carries soluble excretory materials to the organ of excretion.circulation of blood helps to maintain a constant body temperature by distributing the excess of heat from the deeply seated organs.And very important part blood transports oxygen from lungs to all the parts of the body and in blood oxygen combines with blood to form oxyhemoglobin oxygen combines with hemoglobin which is the red pigment present in blood, it combines with hemoglobin to form oxy hemoglobin.
And when the blood reaches the all parts of body all the tissues oxygen from hemoglobin diffuses in these tissues, where it is utilized to release energy in the form of ATP, that is adenosine triphosphate. Here we can see in this equation hemoglobin that is represented through HB combines with oxygen and it forms a oxyhemoglobin.
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Next part is lymphatic system.lymphatic system is the second important circulatory system that permeates the entire human body and transports the liquid called the limp from body tissues to the blood vesicular system. Now, this system consists of live which is the yellow colored fluid connective tissue and it drains into the lymphatic capillaries from the intracellular species. Now what is this lymph campus capillaries these are the network of thin gold highly permeable tubes,live vessels these are live containing vessels like we have blood vessels, these Are the lymphocytes which are formed by joining of lymph capillaries.
And finally we have lymph nodes. In these nodes antibodies are produced by lymphocytes. lymphocytes are the special types of wb C’s white blood cells and they fight against infections.functions have lymphatic system.Lymph absorbs some of the fluid from the digestive tract. It passes proteins from circulation to tissues and also carries the digested fat.Live lympho drains excess fluid from the extracellular spaces back into the blood.It carries carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste material from tissues to the blood.And it do protects the body by killing the germs already I told you in lymph nodes. antibodies are produced by lymphocytes, they are the special kinds of cells.
Students this was all about the Transportation in Human Beings system or the blood circulatory system.